Infancy and Early Childhood Development

When a child is born into a family, it is up to the family to raise the child with the love and nurture that they need. In some cases that’s not always true. Families raise their children the only way they know how and that would be how they were raised, some better brought up than others. No one knows the right way to raise a child next to the wrong way, since they only know their way. Can their way of raising a child affect them when they are older and ready to face the world?

Child development can be understood as the corporal, mental, common, and emotional development of human beings from beginning to adulthood. It is a process that is influenced by interacting natural and conservation processes. “The environmental influences, the family debatably have the most profound impact on child development” (Harden, 2004). A child’s family has more impact on their development during early stages and early childhood than any other period of life. Children develop better if families are more open, observant, and sensitive to their growth. “Families provide essential factors during infancy and early childhood, such as a reassuring touch, warmth, facial expressions, movement, and overheard conversation, which improves the speech of young children” (Berger, 2011). Parents are the first to teach their infants and young children right from wrong. The relationship between young children and families determines how a young child develops. Family stability is most important in raising a child. There are factors related to family how strong they are to raising a child. When a family has a strong structure they are able to raise a child with the best intentions. When a family has a weak structure the child will not be their first priority to raise.

Each parent has different ways of raising a child. There are three types of parents so far; the authoritative, the authoritarian and the permissive. The authoritative will listen to the concerns of their children, but they will set limits and will enforce the rules. These types of parents inspire the maturity of their children and if a child falls short they usually do not punish the children. A firm parent does not consider themselves as the authority over their children but as one who guides the children as a parent and not as a friend. “Authoritative parenting is the most effective style of parenting” (Berger, 2011). Authoritative parents seem strict, but they are not to strict. They understand that setting rules and limitations are a necessity and that compassion of a child’s mistakes is also a necessity. Children are capable of making mistakes just as anyone else is capable of making mistakes.

The authoritarian parent’s word is the law and is not questionable. What they say goes and there is no way to changing their mind. The misbehavior of one’s child brings rather severe punishment such as spanking. The rules that are set by an authoritarian parent is clear, held to high standards, and children are not expected to offer their opinions about the rules. Usually these types of parents do not hold discussions about emotions with their children. These parents are the ones who raise their children for perfection. The most common authoritarian parents are those connected to the military or law. They are the ones who strive for perfection and want their children to hold perfection (Harden, 2004).

The permissive parents rarely make difficulties and hide any irritation directed toward their children. They are the carefree parents who let their children do as they wish. These types of parent outlooks of maturity are low and their discipline lacks strictness. Permissive parents are accepting, nurturing and are willing to listen to whatever their children say. The types of children that come from permissive are spoiled brats who want everything and was never told no. The objective of permissive parents is to be helpful to their children and the development of their child is not a responsibility. Permissive parents consider themselves as a friend to his or her children (Berger, 2011).

The most effective style of parenting I feel is good for a child is the authoritative. They allow their children to grow and learn from their own mistakes. It is the best method for any parent to take when raising their children. A child must learn in order to grow and need their parents to stand back and allow them to with a few set of limitations on them.

Childhood education is good for families with low-income who want continuing improvements in social and language skills for their children. Most parents have to work and can’t teach their children what needs to be taught. This is why education is good for child with busy parents. “A child’s intelligence develops faster and cognition increases through attending early childhood education programs” (Harden, 2004). “There are specific programs that provide early childhood education are child-centered programs, such as Montessori and Reggio Emilia schools, teacher-directed preschool programs, and intervention programs, such as Head Start” (Berger, 2011). Child-centered programs stress the development and growth of the children as well as the need to follow self-interests instead of adult directions. Education programs also emphasize the individual pride and achievement of children; they also encourage artistic and creative expression from the children. Most families enroll their children into preschool and Kindergarten so that the children may start from an early stage.

There are certain ways to raise a child today. Times changes when some parents were children to now. There is a right way and a wrong way to raise children, but the parents raise their children the way they know how to.


Berger, S. K. (2011). The developing person through the life span. Retrieved from http://

Harden, B. (2004, Winter). The Future of Children. Journal Issue: Children, Families, and Foster Care, 14(1). Retrieved from http://

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